Monday, October 13, 2008

Short Answer .Net Interview Questions

Q1. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?

Ans. Server side code will execute at server (where the website is hosted) end, & all the business logic will execute at server end where as client side code will execute at client side (usually written in javascript, vbscript, jscript) at browser end.

Q2. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
Ans. Server side code.

Q3. How to make sure that value is entered in an asp:Textbox control?
Ans. Use a RequiredFieldValidator control.

Q4. Which property of a validation control is used to associate it with a server control on that page?
Ans. ControlToValidate property.

Q5. How would you implement inheritance using VB.NET & C#?
Ans. C# Derived Class : Baseclass
VB.NEt : Derived Class Inherits Baseclass

Q6. Which method is invoked on the DataAdapter control to load the generated dataset with data?
Ans. Fill() method.

Q7. What method is used to explicitly kill a user's session?
Ans. Session.Abandon()

Q8. What property within the asp:gridview control is changed to bind columns manually?
Ans. Autogenerated columns is set to false

Q9. Which method is used to redirect the user to another page without performing a round trip to the client?
Ans. Server.Transfer method.

Q10. How do we use different versions of private assemblies in same application without re-build?
Ans.Inside the Assemblyinfo.cs or Assemblyinfo.vb file, we need to specify assembly version.
assembly: AssemblyVersion

Q11. Is it possible to debug java-script in .NET IDE? If yes, how?
Ans. Yes, simply write "debugger" statement at the point where the breakpoint needs to be set within the javascript code and also enable javascript debugging in the browser property settings.

Q12. How many ways can we maintain the state of a page?
Ans. 1. Client Side - Query string, hidden variables, viewstate, cookies
2. Server side - application , cache, context, session, database

Q13. What is the use of a multicast delegate?
Ans. A multicast delegate may be used to call more than one method.

Q14. What is the use of a private constructor?
Ans. A private constructor may be used to prevent the creation of an instance for a class.

Q15. What is the use of Singleton pattern?
Ans. A Singleton pattern .is used to make sure that only one instance of a class exists.

Q16. When do we use a DOM parser and when do we use a SAX parser?
Ans. The DOM Approach is useful for small documents in which the program needs to process a large portion of the document whereas the SAX approach is useful for large documents in which the program only needs to process a small portion of the document.

Q17. Will the finally block be executed if an exception has not occurred?
Ans.Yes it will execute.

Q18. What is a Dataset?
Ans. A dataset is an in memory database kindof object that can hold database information in a disconnected environment.

Q19. Is XML a case-sensitive markup language?
Ans. Yes.

Q20. What is an .ashx file?
Ans. It is a web handler file that produces output to be consumed by an xml consumer client (rather than a browser).

Q21. What is encapsulation?
Ans. Encapsulation is the OOPs concept of binding the attributes and behaviors in a class, hiding the implementation of the class and exposing the functionality.

Q22. What is Overloading?
Ans. When we add a new method with the same name in a same/derived class but with different number/types of parameters, the concept is called overluoad and this ultimately implements Polymorphism.

Q23. What is Overriding?
Ans. When we need to provide different implementation in a child class than the one provided by base class, we define the same method with same signatures in the child class and this is called overriding.

Q24. What is a Delegate?
Ans. A delegate is a strongly typed function pointer object that encapsulates a reference to a method, and so the function that needs to be invoked may be called at runtime.

Q25. Is String a Reference Type or Value Type in .NET?
Ans. String is a Reference Type object.

Q26. What is a Satellite Assembly?
Ans. Satellite assemblies contain resource files corresponding to a locale (Culture + Language) and these assemblies are used in deploying an application globally for different languages.

Q27. What are the different types of assemblies and what is their use?
Ans. Private, Public(also called shared) and Satellite Assemblies.

Q28. Are MSIL and CIL the same thing?
Ans. Yes, CIL is the new name for MSIL.

Q29. What is the base class of all web forms?
Ans. System.Web.UI.Page

Q30. How to add a client side event to a server control?
Ans. Example... BtnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onclick","javascript:fnSomeFunctionInJavascript()");

Q31. How to register a client side script from code-behind?
Ans. Use the Page.RegisterClientScriptBlock method in the server side code to register the script that may be built using a StringBuilder.

Q32. Can a single .NET DLL contain multiple classes?
Ans. Yes, a single .NET DLL may contain any number of classes within it.

Q33. What is DLL Hell?
Ans. DLL Hell is the name given to the problem of old unmanaged DLL's due to which there was a possibility of version conflict among the DLLs.

Q34. can we put a break statement in a finally block?
Ans. The finally block cannot have the break, continue, return and goto statements.

Q35. What is a CompositeControl in .NET?
Ans. CompositeControl is an abstract class in .NET that is inherited by those web controls that contain child controls within them.

Q36. Which control in is used to display data from an xml file and then displayed using XSLT?
Ans. Use the asp:Xml control and set its DocumentSource property for associating an xml file, and set its TransformSource property to set the xml control's xsl file for the XSLT transformation.

Q37. Can we run ASP.NET 1.1 application and ASP.NET 2.0 application on the same computer?
Ans. Yes, though changes in the IIS in the properties for the site have to be made during deployment of each.

Q38. What are the new features in .NET 2.0?
Ans. Plenty of new controls, Generics, anonymous methods, partial classes, iterators, property visibility (separate visibility for get and set) and static classes.

Q39. Can we pop a MessageBox in a web application?
Ans. Yes, though this is done clientside using an alert, prompt or confirm or by opening a new web page that looks like a messagebox.

Q40. What is managed data?
Ans. The data for which the memory management is taken care by .Net runtime’s garbage collector, and this includes tasks for allocation de-allocation.

Q41. How to instruct the garbage collector to collect unreferenced data?
Ans. We may call the garbage collector to collect unreferenced data by executing the System.GC.Collect() method.

Q42. How can we set the Focus on a control in ASP.NET?
Ans. txtBox123.Focus(); OR Page.SetFocus(NameOfControl);

Q43. What are Partial Classes in Asp.Net 2.0?
Ans. In .NET 2.0, a class definition may be split into multiple physical files but partial classes do not make any difference to the compiler as during compile time, the compiler groups all the partial classes and treats them as a single class.

Q44. How to set the default button on a Web Form?

Q45.Can we force the garbage collector to run?
Ans. Yes, using the System.GC.Collect(), the garbage collector is forced to run in case required to do so.

Q46. What is Boxing and Unboxing?
Ans. Boxing is the process where any value type can be implicitly converted to a reference type object while Unboxing is the opposite of boxing process where the reference type is converted to a value type.

Q47. What is Code Access security? What is CAS in .NET?
Ans. CAS is the feature of the .NET security model that determines whether an application or a piece of code is permitted to run and decide the resources it can use while running.

Q48. What is Multi-tasking?
Ans. It is a feature of operating systems through which multiple programs may run on the operating system at the same time, just like a scenario where a Notepad, a Calculator and the Control Panel are open at the same time.

Q49. What is Multi-threading?
Ans. When an application performs different tasks at the same time, the application is said to exhibit multithreading as several threads of a process are running.2

Q50. What is a Thread?
Ans. A thread is an activity started by a process and its the basic unit to which an operating system allocates processor resources.

Q51. What does AddressOf in VB.NET operator do?
Ans. The AddressOf operator is used in VB.NET to create a delegate object to a method in order to point to it.

Q52. How to refer to the current thread of a method in .NET?
Ans. In order to refer to the current thread in .NET, the Thread.CurrentThread method can be used. It is a public static property.

Q53. How to pause the execution of a thread in .NET?
Ans. The thread execution can be paused by invoking the Thread.Sleep(IntegerValue) method where IntegerValue is an integer that determines the milliseconds time frame for which the thread in context has to sleep.

Q54. How can we force a thread to sleep for an infinite period?
Ans. Call the Thread.Interupt() method.

Q55. What is Suspend and Resume in .NET Threading?
Ans. Just like a song may be paused and played using a music player, a thread may be paused using Thread.Suspend method and may be started again using the Thread.Resume method. Note that sleep method immediately forces the thread to sleep whereas the suspend method waits for the thread to be in a persistable position before pausing its activity.

Q56. How can we prevent a deadlock in .Net threading?
Ans. Using methods like Monitoring, Interlocked classes, Wait handles, Event raising from between threads, using the ThreadState property.

Q57. What is Ajax?
Ans. Asyncronous Javascript and XML - Ajax is a combination of client side technologies that sets up asynchronous communication between the user interface and the web server so that partial page rendering occur instead of complete page postbacks.

Q58. What is XmlHttpRequest in Ajax?
Ans. It is an object in Javascript that allows the browser to communicate to a web server asynchronously without making a postback.

Q59. What are the different modes of storing an ASP.NET session?
Ans. InProc (the session state is stored in the memory space of the Aspnet_wp.exe process but the session information is lost when IIS reboots), StateServer (the Session state is serialized and stored in a separate process call Viewstate is an object in .NET that automatically persists control setting values across the multiple requests for the same page and it is internally maintained as a hidden field on the web page though its hashed for security reasons.

Q60. What is a delegate in .NET?
Ans. A delegate in .NET is a class that can have a reference to a method, and this class has a signature that can refer only those methods that have a signature which complies with the class.

Q61. Is a delegate a type-safe functions pointer?
Ans. Yes

Q62. What is the return type of an event in .NET?
Ans. There is No return type of an event in .NET.

Q63. Is it possible to specify an access specifier to an event in .NET?
Ans. Yes, though they are public by default.

Q64. Is it possible to create a shared event in .NET?
Ans. Yes, but shared events may only be raised by shared methods.

Q65. How to prevent overriding of a class in .NET?
Ans. Use the keyword NotOverridable in VB.NET and sealed in C#.

Q66. How to prevent inheritance of a class in .NET?
Ans. Use the keyword NotInheritable in VB.NET and sealed in C#.

Q67. What is the purpose of the MustInherit keyword in VB.NET?
Ans. MustInherit keyword in VB.NET is used to create an abstract class.

Q68. What is the access modifier of a member function of in an Interface created in .NET?
Ans. It is always public, we cant use any other modifier other than the public modifier for the member functions of an Interface.

Q69. What does the virtual keyword in C# mean?
Ans. The virtual keyword signifies that the method and property may be overridden.

Q70. How to create a new unique ID for a control?
Ans. ControlName.ID = "ControlName" + Guid.NewGuid().ToString(); //Make use of the Guid class

Q71A. What is a HashTable in .NET?
Ans. A Hashtable is an object that implements the IDictionary interface, and can be used to store key value pairs. The key may be used as the index to access the values for that index.

Q71B. What is an ArrayList in .NET?
Ans. Arraylist object is used to store a list of values in the form of a list, such that the size of the arraylist can be increased and decreased dynamically, and moreover, it may hold items of different types. Items in an arraylist may be accessed using an index.

Q72. What is the value of the first item in an Enum? 0 or 1?
Ans. 0

Q73. Can we achieve operator overloading in VB.NET?
Ans. Yes, it is supported in the .NET 2.0 version, the "operator" keyword is used.

Q74. What is the use of Finalize method in .NET?
Ans. .NET Garbage collector performs all the clean up activity of the managed objects, and so the finalize method is usually used to free up the unmanaged objects like File objects, Windows API objects, Database connection objects, COM objects etc.

Q75. How do you save all the data in a dataset in .NET?
Ans. Use the AcceptChanges method which commits all the changes made to the dataset since last time Acceptchanges was performed.

Q76. Is there a way to suppress the finalize process inside the garbage collector forcibly in .NET?
Ans. Use the GC.SuppressFinalize() method.

Q77. What is the use of the dispose() method in .NET?
Ans. The Dispose method in .NET belongs to IDisposable interface and it is best used to release unmanaged objects like File objects, Windows API objects, Database connection objects, COM objects etc from the memory. Its performance is better than the finalize() method.

Q78. Is it possible to have have different access modifiers on the get and set methods of a property in .NET?
Ans. No we can not have different modifiers of a common property, which means that if the access modifier of a property's get method is protected, and it must be protected for the set method as well.

Q79. In .NET, is it possible for two catch blocks to be executed in one go?
Ans. This is NOT possible because once the correct catch block is executed then the code flow goes to the finally block.

Q80. Is there any difference between System.String and System.StringBuilder classes?
Ans. System.String is immutable by nature whereas System.StringBuilder can have a mutable string in which plenty of processes may be performed.

Q81. What technique is used to figure out that the page request is a postback?
Ans. The IsPostBack property of the page object may be used to check whether the page request is a postback or not. IsPostBack property is of the type Boolean.

Q82. Which event of the ASP.NET page life cycle completely loads all the controls on the web page?
Ans. The Page_load event of the ASP.NET page life cycle assures that all controls are completely loaded. Even though the controls are also accessible in Page_Init event but here, the viewstate is incomplete.

Q83. How is ViewState information persisted across postbacks in an ASP.NET webpage?
Ans. Using HTML Hidden Fields, ASP.NET creates a hidden field with an ID="__VIEWSTATE" and the value of the page's viewstate is encoded (hashed) for security.

Q84. What is the ValidationSummary control in ASP.NET used for?
Ans. The ValidationSummary control in ASP.NET displays summary of all the current validation errors.

Q85. What is AutoPostBack feature in ASP.NET?
Ans. In case it is required for a server side control to postback when any of its event is triggered, then the AutoPostBack property of this control is set to true.

Q86. What is the difference between Web.config and Machine.Config in .NET?
Ans. Web.config file is used to make the settings to a web application, whereas Machine.config file is used to make settings to all ASP.NET applications on a server(the server machine).

Q87. What is the difference between a session object and an application object?
Ans. A session object can persist information between HTTP requests for a particular user, whereas an application object can be used globally for all the users.

Q88. Which control has a faster performance, Repeater or Datalist?
Ans. Repeater.

Q89. Which control has a faster performance, Datagrid or Datalist?
Ans. Datalist.

Q90. How to we add customized columns in a Gridview in ASP.NET?
Ans. Make use of the TemplateField column.

Q91. Is it possible to stop the clientside validation of an entire page?
Ans. Set Page.Validate = false;

Q92. Is it possible to disable client side script in validators?
Ans. Yes. simply EnableClientScript = false.

Q93. How do we enable tracing in .NET applications?
Ans. <%@ Page Trace="true" %>

Q94. How to kill a user session in ASP.NET?
Ans. Use the Session.abandon() method.

Q95. Is it possible to perform forms authentication with cookies disabled on a browser?
Ans. No, it is not possible.

Q96. What are the steps to use a checkbox in a gridview?


Q97. What are design patterns in .NET?
Ans. A Design pattern is a repeatitive solution to a repeatitive problem in the design of a software architecture.

Q98. What is difference between dataset and datareader in ADO.NET?
Ans. A DataReader provides a forward-only and read-only access to data, while the DataSet object can carry more than one table and at the same time hold the relationships between the tables. Also note that a DataReader is used in a connected architecture whereas a Dataset is used in a disconnected architecture.

Q99. Can connection strings be stored in web.config?
Ans. Yes, in fact this is the best place to store the connection string information.

Q100. Whats the difference between web.config and app.config?
Ans. Web.config is used for web based applications whereas app.config is used for windows based applications.

Acronyms in .NET

ADO - ActiveX Data Object - Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) is a collection of Component Object Model objects for accessing different types of data sources.

AJAX - Asynchronouse Javascript and XML - Ajax is a web development technology used for creating interactive web pages with fast data rendering by enabling partial postbacks on a web page (That means a section of the web page is rendered again, instead of the complete web page. This is achieved using Javascript, XML, JSON (Javascript Notation Language) and the XMLHttpRequest object in javascript.

ASP - Active Server Pages - Microsoft's Server side script engine for creating dynamic web page.

C# - C Sharp - Microsoft Visual C# is an object oriented programming language based on the .NET Framework. It includes features of powerful languages like C++, Java, Delphi and Visual Basic.

CAO - Client Activated Object - Objects created on the server upon the client's request. This is used in Remoting.

CCW - COM Callable Wrapper - This component is used when a .NET component needs to be used in COM.

CIL - Common Intermediate Language - Its actually a low level human readable language implementation of CLI. All .NET-aware languages compile the source oode to an intermediate language called Common Intermediate Language using the language specific compiler.

CLI - Common Language Infrastructure - This is a subset of CLR and base class libraries that Microsoft has submitted to ECMA so that a third-party vendor can build a .NET runtime on another platform.

CLR - Common Language Runtime - It is the main runtime machine of the Microsoft .NET Framework. It includes the implementation of CLI. The CLR runs code in the form of bytes, called as bytecode and this is termed MSIL in .NET.

CLS - Common Language Specification - A type that is CLS compliant, may be used across any .NET language. CLS is a set of language rules that defines language standards for a .NET language and types declared in it. While declaring a new type, if we make use of the [CLSCompliant] attribute, the type is forced to conform to the rules of CLS.

COFF - Common Object File Format - It is a specification format for executables.

COM - Component Object Model - reusable software components. The tribe of COM components includes COM+, Distributed COM (DCOM) and ActiveX® Controls.

CSC.exe - C Sharp Compiler utility

CTS - Common Type System - It is at the core of .NET Framework's cross-language integration, type safety, and high-performance code execution. It defines a common set of types that can be used with many different language syntaxes. Each language (C#, VB.NET, Managed C++, and so on) is free to define any syntax it wishes, but if that language is built on the CLR, it will use at least some of the types defined by the CTS.

DBMS - Database Management System - a software application used for management of databases.

DISCO - Discovery of Web Services. A Web Service has one or more. DISCO files that contain information on how to access its WSDL.

DLL - Dynamic Link Library - a shared reusable library, that exposes an interface of usable methods within it.

DOM - Document Object Model - is a language independent technology that permits scripts to dynamically updated contents of a document (a web page is also a document).

ECMA - European Computer Manufacturer's Association - Is an internation organisation for computer standards.

GC - Garbage Collector - an automatic memory management system through which objects that are not referenced are cleared up from the memory.

GDI - Graphical Device Interface - is a component in Windows based systems, that performs the activity of representing graphical objects and outputting them to output devices.

GAC - Global Assembly Cache - Is a central repository of reusable libraries in the .NET environment.

GUI - Graphic User Interface - a type of computer interface through which user's may interact with the Computer using different types of input & output devices with a graphical interface.

GUID - Globally Unique Identifier - is a unique reference number used in applications to refer an object.

HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - is a communication protocol used to transfer information in the internet. HTTP is a request-response protocol between servers and clients.

IDE - Integrated Development Environment - is a development environment with source code editor with a compiler(or interpretor), debugging tools, designer, solution explorer, property window, object explorer etc.

IDL - Interface Definition Language - is a language for defining software components interface.

ILDASM - Intermediate Language Disassembler - The contents of an assembly may be viewed using the ILDASM utility, that comes with the .NET SDK or the Visual Studio.NET. The ildasm.exe tool may also be used in the command line compiler.

IIS - Internet Information Server - Is a server that provides services to websites and even hosts websites.

IL - Intermediate Language - is the compiled form of the .NET language source code. When .NET source code is compiled by the language specific compiler (say we compile C# code using csc.exe), it is compiled to a .NET binary, which is platform independent, and is called Intermediate Language code. The .NET binary also comprises of metadata.

JIT - Just in Time (Jitter) - is a technology for boosting the runtime performance of a system. It converts during runtime, code from one format into another, just like IL into native machine code. Note that JIT compilation is processor specific. Say a processor is X86 based, then the JIT compilation will be for this type of processor.

MBR - MarshallByReference - The caller recieves a proxy to the remote object.

MBV - MarshallByValue - The caller recieves a copy of the object in its own application domain.

MDI - Multiple Document Interface - A window that resides under a single parent window.

MSIL - Microsoft Intermediate Language - now called CIL.

Orcas - Codename for Visual Studio 2008

PE - Portable Executable - an exe format file that is portable.

RAD - Rapid Application Development

RCW - Runtime Callable Wrapper - This component is used when a .NET needs to use a COM component.

SAX - Simple API for XML - It is a serial access parser API for XML. The parser is event driven and the event gets triggered when an XML feature is encountered.

SDK - Software Development Kit

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - a text based protocol for sending mails.

SN.exe - Strong Name Utility - a tool to make strong named assemblies.

SQL - Structured Query Language - a language for management of data in a relational structure.

SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol - a protocol used for exchange of xml based messages across networks.

TCP - Transmission Control Protocol - data exchange protocol across networks using streamed sockets.

UI - User Interface

URI - Uniform Resource Identifier

URL - Uniform Resource Locator

UDDI - Universal Description, Discovery and Integration - it is a platform independent business registration across the internet.

WAP - Wireless Access Protocol - a protocol that enables access to the internet from mobile phones and PDAs.

WC - Windows Cardspace - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, that enables users to secure and store digital identities of a person, and a provision to a unified interface for choosing the identity for a particular transaction, like logging in to a website.

WCF - Windows Communication Foundation - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, that enables communication between applications across machines.

WF - Windows Workflow Foundation - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, used for defining, execution and management of reusable workflows.

WKO - Well Known Object - These are MBR types whose lifetime is controlled by the server's application domain.

WPF - Windows Presentation Foundation - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, is the graphical subsystem of the .NET 3.0 framework.

WSDL - Web Services Description Language - is an XML based language for describing web services.

WML - Wireless Markup Language - is a content format for those devices that use Wireless Application Protocol.

VB.NET - Visual Basic .NET - .NET based language. Its the .NET implementation of VB6, the most widely used language in the world.

VBC.exe - VB.NET Compiler

VES - Virtual Execution System - It provides the environment for execution of managed code. It provides direct support for a set of built in data types, defines a hypothetical machine with an associated machine model and state, a set of control flow constructs, and an exception handling model. To a large extent, the purpose of the VES is to provide the support required to execute the Common Intermediate Language instruction set.

VS - Visual Studio

VSS - Visual Source Safe - An IDE by Microsoft, to maintain source code versions and security.

VSTS - Visual Studio Team Suite - Visual Studio Team System - it is an extended version of Visual Studio .NET. It has a set of collaboration and development tools for software development process.

XML - Extensible Markup Language - is a general purpose well formed markup language.